History Matching And Uncertainty Quantification Of Reservoir Performance With Generative Deep Learning And Graph Convolutions
Shishaev G, Demyanov V, Arnold D, Vygon R
Generative deep learning is becoming a widely used approach in geological modelling, especially in problems that involve optimization processes under uncertainty like history matching. The basic idea of reservoir modelling and history matching by generative deep learning is to train some kind of reservoir generator and provide optimization under different constraints. There are different approaches that have been developed to utilize various modifications of Generative Adversarial Networks or Variational Autoencoders to implement reservoir generators, but most of them have “conventional” convolution neural networks, hence all data have to be regular (rectangular) in structure. This should be recognized as a limitation.
In this work, we introduce a novel approach of reservoir modelling with Variational Autoencoders based on graph convolutions as opposed to “conventional” convolutions. In our approach reservoir model is considered as a graph, i.e., not a structured data type. Graph convolutions can deal with these data types, and connection with Variational Autoencoders provides us with the capability to generate initially unstructured reservoirs. Variational Autoencoders (VAE) demonstrate the ability to implicitly parameterize geological representations into a latent space of reduced dimensionality and provide ways to uncertainty quantification and production profiling among various geological concepts.
In the first part, we introduce the motivation to Graph Variational Autoencoders (GVAE) as opposed to conventional Generative Deep learning models. The rest of the paper is dedicated to experiments on a synthetic dataset with two different geological scenarios. We show that trained GVAE performs the generation of reservoir models with reliable geology. A latent space structure between Encoder and Decoder of GVAE is represented, and interpretation considering geology under investigation is performed. Finally, we show how latent space can help to estimate the uncertainty of production and an optimization workflow under well data constraints.